This is the second article in our series on JBIMS MSc Finance Interview Preparation.
1. Share Capital
Share capital consists of funds raised by issuing shares in return for cash or other considerations. The amount of share capital a company has can change over time because each time a business sells new shares to the public in exchange for cash, the amount of share capital will increase. Share capital can be composed of both common and preferred shares.
The amount of share capital a company reports on its balance sheet only accounts for the initial amount for which the original shareholders purchased the shares from the issuing company. Any price differences arising from price appreciation/depreciation as a result of transactions in the secondary market are not included. Watch this video on Share Capital
2. Unsecured Loan
An unsecured loan is a loan that is issued and supported only by the borrower’s creditworthiness, rather than by a type of collateral. An unsecured loan is one that is obtained without the use of property as collateral for the loan. Borrowers generally must have high credit ratings to be approved for an unsecured loan. Because an unsecured loan is not guaranteed by any type of property, these loans are bigger risks for lenders and, as such, typically have higher interest rates than secured loans (such as a mortgage). Although the interest rates are higher, the rates may still be lower than those of credit cards. Unlike mortgage loans, the interest on an unsecured loan is not tax deductible.
An unsecured loan may be a good option for individuals who do not have enough equity in their homes to be approved for a home equity loan. An unsecured loan may have a fixed interest rate and be due at the end of a specified term, or it can exist as a revolving line of credit with a variable interest rate. Watch this video on Unsecured Loan
A creditor is an entity (person or institution) that extends credit by giving another entity permission to borrow money if it is paid back at a later date. Creditors can be classified as either “personal” or “real.” Those people who loan money to friends or family are personal creditors. Real creditors (i.e. a bank or finance company) have legal contracts with the borrower granting the lender the right to claim any of the debtor’s real assets (e.g. real estate or car) if he or she fails to pay back the loan. Watch this video on creditor
A debtor is a company or individual who owes money. If the debt is in the form of a loan from a financial institution, the debtor is referred to as a borrower. If the debt is in the form of securities, such as bonds, the debtor is referred to as an issuer. It is not a crime to fail to pay a debt. Except in certain bankruptcy situations, debtors can choose to pay debts in any priority they choose. But if you’ve failed to pay a debt, you have broken a contract or agreement between you and a creditor. Generally, most oral and written agreements for the repayment of consumer debt – debts for personal, family or household purposes secured primarily by a person’s residence – are enforceable. Watch this video on Debtor
A debenture is a type of debt instrument that is not secured by physical assets or collateral. Debentures are backed only by the general creditworthiness and reputation of the issuer. Both corporations and governments frequently issue this type of bond to secure capital. Like other types of bonds, debentures are documented in an indenture. Debentures have no collateral. Bond buyers generally purchase debentures based on the belief that the bond issuer is unlikely to default on the repayment. An example of a government debenture would be any government-issued Treasury bond (T-bond) or Treasury bill (T-bill). T-bonds and T-bills are generally considered risk free because governments, at worst, can print off more money or raise taxes to pay these types of debts. Watch this video on Debenture
Hope you found this useful. Stay tuned for more Finance concepts and supercharge your JBIMS MSc Finance interview preparation. Contact us in case of any queries and join our Facebook Preparation Group. And take our Free JBIMS MSc Finance Mock today!